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Zeta PALS. Zeta Potential Analyzer Utilizing Phase Analysis Light Scattering

Features at a glance

  • Zeta potential for the difficult cases...
    • In organic solvents
    • In oily or viscous media
    • In high-salt suspensions
    • Near the I.E.P.
  • 1000 times more sensitive than other techniques
  • Disposable cuvettes, no contamination or alignment
  • Built in automatic procedures and parameters
  • Easy to use
  • Upgradable to include full particle sizing functionality

A whole new concept.....
Unique to Brookhaven! For the difficult cases

For measurements of very low mobilities, the Brookhaven ZetaPALS is the answer. The only answer! With concepts developed at Bristol University and Brookhaven Instruments, the ZetaPALS determines zeta potential using Phase Analysis Light Scattering: A technique that is up to 1,000 times more sensitive than traditional light scattering methods based on the shifted frequency spectrum.

Electrostatic repulsion of colloidal particles is often the key to understanding the stability of any dispersion. A simple, easy measurement of the electrophoretic mobility "even in nonpolar liquids" yields valuable information. Measurements made in water and other polar liquids are easy and fast with the Brookhaven ZetaPlus. Such measurements cover the range of typically ±6 - 100 mV, corresponding to mobilities of ± 0.5-8x10-8 m2 /V·s. The ZetaPALS covers this full range, of course, and extends it by a factor of 1000 in sensitivity!
Principles of Operation

The ZetaPALS utilizes phase analysis light scattering to determine the electrophoretic mobility of charged, colloidal suspensions. Unlike its cousin, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) (sometimes called Laser Doppler Electrophoresis (LDE)), the PALS technique does not require the application of large fields which may result in thermal problems. Because in the measurement of phase shift, the particles need only to move a fraction of their own diameter to yield good results. In salt concentrations up to 3 molar and with electric fields as small as 1 or 2 V/cm enough movement is induced to get excellent results. In addition, the Autotracking feature compensates for thermal drift.

Typical Applications

  • Liposomes and biocolloids
  • Ceramics and refractories
  • Pigments and inks
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Emulsions (foodstuffs, cosmetics)
  • Wastewater treatment monitoring
  • Latexes
  • Carbon blacks


Zeta Potential Size range for measurement 1 nm to 100
  Mobility range 10-11 to 10-7 m2/V*s
  Zeta potential range -220 mV to 220 mV (*)
  Maximum sample concentration 10% v/v (*)
  Sample volume 180 L, 600 L, 1250 L
  Maximum sample conductivity 30 S/m
  Signal processing Phase Analysis Light Scattering, PALS
Particle Size Size range (radius) < 0.3 nm to > 3 microns (*)
  Sample volume 10 L, 40 L, 1 - 3 mL
  Concentration range 0.1 mg/mL to 10% v/v (*)
Molecular Weight Molecular weight range (estimated from hydrodynamic diameter) 1 KDa to 25 MDa
  Molecular weight range (calculated using Debye plot) requires BI-APD 1 KDa to 25 MDa
  Minimum sample volume 10 L
General Temperature control range -5 °C to 110 °C, + 0.2 °C
  Measurement angles Three angles, two for particle sizing one for zeta potential
  Condensation control Purge facility using dry air, nitrogen preferred
  Standard laser 35 mW red diode laser, nom 660 nm
  Correlator TurboCorr, 25 ns min, 100% real-time, 100% eff.
System Compliance CE certification Class I laser product, EN 60825-1:2001, CDRH
System Dimensions 23.3 cm x 42.7 cm x 48.1 cm (HWD)
  Weight 15 kg
  Power 100/115/220/240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 150 W max
Notes: (*) Sample type dependant.

Methods and equipment

Polymerase chain reaction
Atomic force microscopy
Surface plasmon resonance